The gems, jewelry, and precious metals sector is essential for developing regions with this activity and there is a high degree of informality in the mining and trading gemstone sectors. The present study analyzed data from the production process of precious stones in the Brazilian national market. We identified the importance of the factors contributing to the quality of the gemstone production process concerning mining, cutting, and marketing, under the scope of sustainable chain development. A list of references was used to select thirteen significant factors in the precious stone production process that contributed to the sustainable development of the chain related to mining, cutting, and marketing. We used a multicriteria decision model applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to consider the degree of importance of the production stage process of gemstones and the factors that impact the sustainable development of the production chain. In applying the model to the production stages, the criteria and sub-criteria factors were considered. The results suggest that sustainable development is highly related to gem mining (44.7%, rank 1), moderately related to gem cutting (32.5%, rank 2), and there is little relationship to gem marketing (22 .8%, rank 3), considering the criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives. The requirement related to the technical qualification and skill of the lapidary is the most critical factor in the production process. The second most important factor is commercialization, followed by the preservation of the mining area and the valuable life of the mine.
How to Cite
regional development, semi-precious gems, mining
Arango-Aramburo, S., Jaramillo, P., Olaya, Y., Smith, R., Restrepo, OJ, Saldarriaga-Isaza, A., Arias-Gaviria, J., Parra, JF., Larsen, ER., Gomes-Rios, LM., & Castelhanos- Niño, LY. (2017). Simulating mining policies in developing countries: the case of Colombia. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 60, 99–113. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2017.04.002
Barreto, S de B., & Bittar, SMB. (2010). The gem deposits of Brazil: Location, production and economic impact. Boletin de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(1), 123-140. ISSN 1405-3322.
Batterham, RJ. (2017). The mine of the future – Even more sustainable. Minerals Engineering, 107, 2-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2016.11.001
Brazil- Federal Senate. (2012). Federal Senate Public Hearing Review. Retrieved 4 March 2021, from https://www.senado.gov.br/noticias/Jornal/emdiscussao/rio20/temas-em-discussao-na-rio20/ecodesenvolvimento-conceito-desenvolvimento-sustentavel-relatorio-brundtland-onu-crescimento-economico-pobreza-consumo-energia-recursos-ambientais-poluicao.aspx
Brazil. (2018). Mining Code, Decree 9.406 of June 2018.Brasília, D.F. Presidency of the Republic. Retrieved 22 January 2021, from http://www.planalto.gov.br/ .
Bui, N.T., Kawamura, A., Kim, K.W., Prathumratana, L., Kim, T.H., Yoon, S.H., Jang, M., Amaguchi, H., Du Bui, D., & Truong, N.T. 2017. Proposal of an indicator-based sustainability assessment framework for the mining sector of APEC economies. Resources Policy, 52, 405–17. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.05.005.
Camanho, R., & Moraes, EA. (2007). Multicriteria decisions. In Costa Neto, P.L.O (Coord.) Quality and competence in decisions. São Paulo: Editora Blucher.
Canaan, R.P. (2013). Design management applied to the value chain of local production arrangements. UEMG - MG, 119.
Carvalho, C.A. de. (2017). The role of the APL of the Pedro II opal, Piaui, in the structuring of mineral tourism in the municipality. Master's in social change and political participation. São Paulo: University of São Paulo.
Carvalho, F.P. (2017). Mining industry and sustainable development: time for change. Food and Energy Security, 6(2), 61-77.
Cartier, L.E. (2019). Gemstones and sustainable development: Perspectives and trends in mining, processing and trade of precious stones. The Extractive Industries and Society, 6, 13–16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.09.005.
CNI-National Confederation of Industries (2017). Mining and Green Economy. Retrieved 3 March 2021, from
Costa, R.M. da., & Jornada, M.I.H. da. (2015, July). Productive arrangement of stones, gems and jewels from Alto da Serra do Botucaraí. Report II. Porto Alegre: FEE. Retrieved 23 April 2019, from
Dubinski, J. (2013). Sustainable development of mining mineral. Resources. Journal of Sustainable Mining, 12(1), 1–6. Doi: https://doi.org/10.7424/jsm130102.
IBGM - Brazilian Institute of Gems and Precious Metals. (2018). The Sector in large numbers. Retrieved 8 February 2021, from
IBRAM- Brazilian Mining Institute. (2016). Atlas: mapping the goals of sustainable development in mining. Retrieved 3 March 2021, from
Kincaid, C., & Smith, N.M. (2021). Diversity and inclusion in mining: An analysis of indicators used in sustainability reporting. The Extractive Industries and Society, e100981. Oi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2021.100981.
Laing, T., & Moonsammy, S. (2021). Evaluating the impact of small-scale mining on the achievement of the sustainable development goals in Guyana. Environmental Science & Policy, 116, 147–59. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.11.010.
Landim, P.C. (2010). Design, company, society. Academic Culture, Scielo Books. São Paulo, Ed. UNESP, Retrieved 20 de January 2021, from < http//books.scielo.org>.
Makki, M., & Ali, S.H. (2019). Gemstone supply chains and development in Pakistan: Analyzing the post-Taliban emerald economy in the Swat Valley. Geoforum, 100, 166–175. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.01.005
Mancini, L., & Sala, S. (2018). Social impact assessment in the mining sector: Review and comparison of indicators frameworks. Resources Policy, 57, 98–111. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2018.02.002
Milanez, B., & Oliveira J.A.P. de. (2013). Inovação para o desenvolvimento sustentável na mineração artesanal: avanços em um cluster de mineração de opala no Brasil. Resources Policy, 38, 427-434. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.07.003
MME- Ministry of Mines and Energy. (2018). Report 5 – Inventory of Small-Scale Mining of Gems. Retrieved 22 January 202, from http://antigo.mme.gov.br/documents/36144/471889/Produto+5.pdf/fdcff1b2-c0b2-5909-6dff-c3be19614a85
Mol, A., Martins-Filho, LS, & Rocha, R. (2016). Application of artificial neural networks in the estimation of parameters in cut gemstone designs. Brazilian Congress of Neural Networks. Doi: https://doi.org/10.21528/CBRN2005-001
Mulinari, M. (2011). Analysis of the production process of the extraction of precious stones aiming at profitable and environmentally effective alternatives. Master's Dissertation, UFSM, RS, 80.
Oliveira, L.H.O. de. (2019). Body adornments in the Atlantic world: organic gems in eighteenth-century Minas Gerais.In Rezende, EJC., Safar, GH., Almeida, M. das G. Notebook in time: history in art and designer, 4, 40. Belo Horizonte, EdUEMG. Retrieved 20 January 2021, from
Periaiah, N., Islam, R., & Abdullah, M.F. (2021). Environmental impact assessment for Malaysian bauxite mining industry. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 13(1), 1-26. Doi: https://doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v13i1.851
Reck, A.B., & Schultz, G. (2016). Application of the multicriteria decision support methodology in the interorganizational relationship in the beef poultry chain. Journal of Rural Economics and Sociology, 54. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1234-56781806-94790540407
Reis, J.G.M., Vendrameto, O., Costa Neto, P.L.de O., & Machado, S.T. (2017). Evaluation of the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the sugar-energy activity in Mato Grosso do Sul: an analysis with multicriteria. Magazine on Agribusiness and Environment, 10, 673-695. Doi: https://doi.org/10.17765/2176-9168.2017v10n3p673-695
Ribeiro, H.M.D. (2011). Characterization of the sector of gems, jewelry and precious metals in Brazil: perspectives for innovation and sectorial development. Sectorial Studies Series, 11, 48, Brasília: SENAI.DN.
Saaty, T.L. (1977). A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. Journal of Mathematics Psychology, 15, 234 – 281. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(77)90033-5
Saaty, T.L., & Shang J. (2011). An innovative order of magnitude approach to multicriteria decision making based on AHP: prioritizing divergent intangible humanitarian acts. European Journal of Operational Research, 214, 703-715. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2011.05.019
Saldarriaga-Isaza, A., Villegas-Palacio, C., & Arango, S. (2013). The public good dilemma of a nonrenewable common resource: a look at the facts of artisanal gold mining. Resource Policy, 38, 224-232. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.02.001
Sambasivan, M., & Fei, N.Y. (2008). Evaluation of critical success factors of implementation of ISO 14001 using analytic hierarchy process (AHP): a case study from Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16, 1424-1433. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.08.003
Sauer, P.C, & Seuring, S. 2017. Sustainable supply chain management for minerals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 151, 235–49. Doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.049.
Shen, L., Muduli, K., & Barve, A. (2015). Developing a sustainable development framework in the context of mining industries: AHP approach. Resources Policy, 46, 15–26. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.10.006
Taha, H.A. (2018). Pesquisa Operacional: uma visão geral. 8 ed. São Paulo: Editora Pearson.
UNITED - Nations Commodity Trade. – UN Comtrade Database - General data. Retrieved 27 January 2021, from
Wang, C., Yang, S., Jiang, CY., Wu, GY., & Liu, QZ. (2019). Monte Carlo analytic hierarchy process for selection of the longwall mining method in thin coal seams. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 119, 1005-1012. Doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/17/375/2020
Copyright of all articles published in IJAHP is transferred to Creative Decisions Foundation (CDF). However, the author(s) reserve the following:
- All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
- The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain permission from CDF as well. However, CDF may grant rights with respect to journal issues as a whole.
- The right to use all or parts of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, textbooks, or reprint books.
- The authors affirm that the article has been neither copyrighted nor published, that it is not being submitted for publication elsewhere, and that if the work is officially sponsored, it has been released for open publication.
The only exception to the statements in the paragraph above is the following: If an article published in IJAHP contains copyrighted material, such as a teaching case, as an appendix, then the copyright (and all commercial rights) of such material remains with the original copyright holder.
CDF will receive permission for publication of copyrighted material in IJAHP. This permission is not transferable to third parties. Permission to make electronic and paper copies of part or all of the articles, including all computer files that are linked to the articles, for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage.
This permission does not apply to previously copyrighted material, such as teaching cases. In paper copies of the article, the copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date should be visible. To copy otherwise is permitted provided that a per-copy fee is paid.
To republish, to post on servers, or redistribute to lists requires that you post a link to the IJAHP article, which is available in open access delivery mode. Do not upload the article itself.
Authors are permitted to present a talk, based on a paper submitted to or accepted by IJAHP, at a conference where the paper would not be published in a copyrighted publication either before or after the conference and where the author did not assign copyright to the conference or related publisher.