Suk Kyoung Kim Jongsu Lee Jae Jeung Rho
Information and telecommunication technologies are considered significant for the economic and social development of isolated and remote areas. Internet technologies create links between urban and rural areas that can overcome the barrier of distance that typically hinders development. In rural areas of Pakistan, Internet penetration is low due to high cost, lack of manageable infrastructure, public issues and many other factors that disturb sustainable Internet provision; however, the choice of access to technology in rural areas is a complex process. In this paper, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, which is a powerful multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach and is a structured procedure for organizing and analyzing complex decisions. Furthermore, we proposed an AHP model for the selection of an ideal Internet access technology, which would facilitate access to Internet services to the 61% of the population who live in Pakistan’s rural areas. Data were collected from 38 respondents, from both academia and the telecom sector IT professionals. The relative weights of each factor and technology alternative were synthesized with Expert Choice 2000. This paper can provide comprehensive recommendations to telecommunication policymakers for Internet deployment and the selection of optimal Internet access technology in rural Pakistan.
access technology selection, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Analytic Hierarchy Process, internet penetration, rural Pakistan
Andrew, T.N., Rahoo, P. & Nepal, T. (2005). Enhancing the selection of communication technology for rural telecommunications: An Analytic Hierarchy Process model. International Journal of Computers, Systems, and Signals, 6(2), 26-34.
Chasia, H. (1976). Choice of technology for rural telecommunication in developing countries. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 24(7), 732-736. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tcom.1976.1093366
Chemane, L., Ekenberg, L., Popov, O. & Cossa, T. (2005). MCDM model for selecting internet access technologies-A case study in Mozambique. EUROCON 2005-The International Conference on “Computer as a Tool”, 2, 1738-1741. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/eurcon.2005.1630311
Clarke, G.R.. & Wallsten, S.J. (2002). Universal(ly bad) service: Providing infrastructure services to rural and poor urban consumers. Policy Research Working Paper. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-2868
Digital Pakistan Policy (2017). Available: http://moit.gov.pk/policies/dgp08aug.pdf
Douligeris, C. & Pereira, I.J. (1994). A telecommunications quality study using the analytic hierarchy process. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 12(2), 241-250. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/49.272873
Field, M.J. (Ed.) (1996). Telemedicine: A guide to assessing telecommunications for health care. National Academies Press.
Gasiea, Y., Emsley, M. & Mikhailov, L. (2010). Rural telecommunications infrastructure selection using the analytic network process. Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, 28-42.
Gasmi, F. & Recuero Virto, L. (2005). Telecommunications technologies deployment in developing countries: Role of markets and institutions. Available at SSRN 977441.
Hudson, H. E. (1989). Overcoming the barriers of distance: telecommunications and rural development. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 8(4), 7-10. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/44.44526
Hudson, H. E. (199) Universal access. Rural Telecommunications 18.5, 22-28.
Hudson, H. E. (2013). From rural village to global village: Telecommunications for development in the information age. Routledge. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203933138
International Monetary Fund (2018). Chapter 2: Digital Government. Fiscal Monitor, April 2018: Capitalizing on Good Times. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/FM/ Issues/2018/04/06/fiscal-monitor-april-2018 Doi: https://doi.org/10.5089/9781616352486.089
Internet in Pakistan. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2013, from Audiences capes:
Ishizaka, A. & Labib, A. (2011). Review of the main developments in the analytic hierarchy process. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(11), 14336-14345. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.04.143
ITU (1989). Rural telecommunication supplements 2. Geneva: International Telecommunications Union.
ITU-D (1997). New developments in rural telecommunications, Study Group 2. Geneva: International Telecommunications Union.
ITU-D, Group 7 (2000). New technologies for rural applications, [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/pub/D-STG-RUR-2001
ITU-D, (2006). Analysis of case studies on successful practices in telecommunications for rural and remote areas, Study Group 2. Geneva: ITU.
ITU, (2010). World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010: Monitoring the WSIS targets. Geneva: International Telecommunications Union.
Kawasumi, K. (2000). New technologies and solutions for rural accessibility.
Liao, Z. (1998). A systematic integration model to support complex decision?making in a dynamic environment. Systems Research and Behavioral Science: The Official Journal of the International Federation for Systems Research, 15(1), 33-45. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1743(199801/02)15:1%3C33::aid-sres189%3E3.0.co;2-6
Malladi, S. & Min, K. J. (2005). Decision support models for the selection of internet access technologies in rural communities. Telematics and Informatics, 22(3), 201-219. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2004.10.001
Mervana, S. & Le, C. (2002). Design and implementation of DSL-based access solutions. Cisco Press.
Nazem, S. M., Liu, Y. H., Lee, H. & Shi, Y. (1996). Implementing telecommunications infrastructure: a rural America case. Telematics and Informatics, 13(1), 23-31. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0736-5853(95)00012-7
Pakistan census (2017) Available: http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/DISTRICT_WISE_CENSUS_RESULTS_CENSUS_2017.pdf
Pirdashti, M., Ghadi, A., Mohammadi, M. & Shojatalab, G. (2009). Multi-criteria decision-making selection model with application to chemical engineering management decisions. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 49, 54-59.
PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority) 2017 annual report. Available: https://www.pta.gov.pk/assets/media/ann_rep_2017.pdf
PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority) November 2019 updates. Available: https://www.pta.gov.pk//en/telecom-indicators
PTA (Chapter no 6, Annual report, 2009). Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, Broadband, and value-added services [online], Available: http://220.127.116.11:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/11577/Annual%20Report%202009.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Saaty, T. L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Saaty, T. L. (1990). How to make a decision: The Analytic Hierarchy Process. European Journal of Operational Research, 48(1), 9-26. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(90)90057-i
Saaty, T. L. & Vargas, L. G. (1994). Decision making in economic, political, social, and technological environments with the analytic hierarchy process (Vol. 7). Pittsburgh, PA: RWS Publications.
Saaty, T. L. (2005). Theory and applications of the analytic network process: decision making with benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks. Pittsburgh, PA: RWS publications.
Saaty, T. L. & Vargas, L. G. (2007). Dispersion of group judgments. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 46(7-8), 918-925. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2007.03.004
Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83-98.
Saaty & Cillo, B. (2008). The Encyclicon: A dictionary of complex decisions using the Analytical Network Process (Vol. 2). Pittsburgh. PA: RWS Publications. Doi, 10, 978-1.
Sattar, K. (2007). A sustainable model for use of ICTs in rural Pakistan. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 3(2).
Tam, M. C. & Tummala, V. R. (2001). An application of the AHP in vendor selection of a telecommunications system. Omega, 29(2), 171-182. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0305-0483(00)00039-6
Telecommunications Policy (2015). https://usf.org.pk/UserFiles/file/Telecommunications%20Policy%20-2015%20 APPROVED.pdf
Umer, A. & Harris (2017). Internet landscape of Pakistan. Available: https://bytesforall.pk/sites/default/files/Internet_Landscape_Pakistan_2017.pdf
Vakataki, O, S. Okuda, A. & Roeder, E. (2017). The impact of universal service funds on fixed-broadband deployment and Internet adoption in Asia and the Pacific. Asia-Pacific Superhighway Working Paper Series, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1-52. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18356/c6039be4-en
Yasir, A. (2017). Challenges for rural Pakistan and the way forward. Available: https://ignite.org.pk/blog/2017/12/06/challenges-for-rural-pakistan-and-the-way-forward/
Copyright of all articles published in IJAHP is transferred to Creative Decisions Foundation (CDF). However, the author(s) reserve the following:
- All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
- The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain permission from CDF as well. However, CDF may grant rights with respect to journal issues as a whole.
- The right to use all or parts of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, textbooks, or reprint books.
- The authors affirm that the article has been neither copyrighted nor published, that it is not being submitted for publication elsewhere, and that if the work is officially sponsored, it has been released for open publication.
The only exception to the statements in the paragraph above is the following: If an article published in IJAHP contains copyrighted material, such as a teaching case, as an appendix, then the copyright (and all commercial rights) of such material remains with the original copyright holder.
CDF will receive permission for publication of copyrighted material in IJAHP. This permission is not transferable to third parties. Permission to make electronic and paper copies of part or all of the articles, including all computer files that are linked to the articles, for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage.
This permission does not apply to previously copyrighted material, such as teaching cases. In paper copies of the article, the copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date should be visible. To copy otherwise is permitted provided that a per-copy fee is paid.
To republish, to post on servers, or redistribute to lists requires that you post a link to the IJAHP article, which is available in open access delivery mode. Do not upload the article itself.
Authors are permitted to present a talk, based on a paper submitted to or accepted by IJAHP, at a conference where the paper would not be published in a copyrighted publication either before or after the conference and where the author did not assign copyright to the conference or related publisher.