Marginal materials, also called sub-standard materials, have the potential to replace premium materials in local roads. However, the current definition of marginal materials suffers from the limitation of focusing on whether or not each single property meets the corresponding requirement of specifications rather than reflecting the overall performance of the materials. To overcome this limitation and to better understand the concept of â€˜marginal materialâ€™, this study was conducted using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework to evaluate the overall performance of five aggregates and an assumed boundary aggregate based on multiple factors (various engineering properties and performance). The aggregates were ranked through comparing the overall weight of each material, which was obtained based on the analysis of the relative weights of criteria and sub-criteria along with data processing of engineering properties.
The AHP model is a good method to select the best aggregates within a number of given aggregates. It can describe the overall performance of aggregates in a quantitative way, which allows the qualities of the aggregates to be compared to each other so that the proper aggregates can be selected for different road construction purposes.
Â The validation of the AHP model demonstrates that the AHP analyzed qualities of the aggregates match well to their qualities in field road construction, but there is a need to make a combination analysis on the individual properties (specification pass/fail criteria) and overall performance (AHP model) in the process of evaluating the quality of aggregates.
Analytical Hierarchy Process, relative weights, marginal aggregates, road construction
Bartley, F. G., Harvey, C. C., Bignall, G., Christie, A. B., Reyes, A., Soong, R., & Faure, K. (2007). Clay mineralogy of modified marginal aggregates, 318, 109). Auckland, New Zealand: New Zealand Transport Agency.
Black, P. M. (2009). Geologic inventory of North Island aggregate resources: Influences on engineering materials properties. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland.
Brennan, G. (1984). Marginal aggregates for sealed roads: a New Zealand experience. Paper presented at the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Conference, 12th, 1984, Hobart, Vermont South, Victoria, Australia.
Brunschwig, G. (1989). Marginal materials: state of the art (pp. 110). Paris, France: Permanent International Association of Road Congresses (PIARC).
BSI. (2013). BS EN 13242: 2013 Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road construction. Doi:10.3403/02881113
Cheng, C. (1999). Evaluating weapon systems using ranking fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 107(1), 25-35. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0114(97)00348-5
Cole, W., & Sandy, M. (1980). A proposed secondary mineral rating for basalt road aggregate durability. Australian Road Research, 10(3).
Evans, G., & Vuong, B. (2003). Development of Performance-Based Specifications for Unbound Granular Materials: Part A: Issues and Recommendations, 60. Sydney, Australia.
Hveem, F. (1953). Sand equivalent test for control of materials during construction. Paper presented at the Highway Research Board Proceedings.
NZS. (1991). Standards New Zealand 4407. New Zealand.
NZTA. (2006). Specification for basecourse aggregate TNZ M4 , 15.
Prowell, B. D., Zhang, J., & Brown, E. R. (2005). Aggregate properties and the performance of superpave-designed hot mix asphalt NCHRP Report 539. Doi: DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/13844
Rogers, C. D. F., Fleming, P. R., & Frost, M. W. (2004). A philosophy for a performance specification for road foundations. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport, 157(3), 143-151. Doi: 10.1680/tran.188.8.131.52181
Roux III, I. J., & Makrigeorgis, C. (2016). An analytic hierarchy process application to oil sands environmental compliance risk management. International Journal of Analytic Hierarchy Process, 8(1), 20. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v8i1.304
Saaty, T. L. (1986). Absolute and relative measurement with the AHP. The most livable cities in the United States. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 20(6), 327-331. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0121(86)90043-1
Saaty, T. L., & Vargas, L. G. (2001). Models, methods, concepts & applications of the analytic hierarchy process. Springer.
Sameshima, T. (1977). Hydrothermal degradation of basecourse aggregate.
Satty, T. L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Standard, N. Z. (1986). 1986 NZS 3111, 58.
Stapel, E., & Verhoef, P. (1989). The use of methylene blue absorption test in assessing the quality of basaltic tuff rock aggregate. Engineering geology, 26, 14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-7952(89)90011-2
Strojny, J., & Hejman, W. (2016). AHP based multicriteria comparative analysis of regions of eastern Poland. International Journal of Analytic Hierarchy Process, 8(1), 24. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v8i1.373
Torfi, F., Farahani, R. Z., & Rezapour, S. (2010). Fuzzy AHP to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria and Fuzzy TOPSIS to rank the alternatives. Applied Soft Computing, 10(2), 520-528. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2009.08.021
Vaidya, O. S., & Kumar, S. (2006). Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications. European Journal of operational research, 169(1), 1-29. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2004.04.028
Van Barneveld, J., Bartley, F., & Dunlop, R. (1984). Progress in the study of New Zealand aggregates. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology-Bulletin de l'Association Internationale de GÃ©ologie de l'IngÃ©nieur, 30(1), 17-21. Doi: 10.1007/BF02594271
Yang, T., & Hung, C. (2007). Multiple-attribute decision making methods for plant layout design problem. Robotics and computer-integrated manufacturing, 23(1), 126-137. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2005.12.002
Zhang, J., Zhang, D., Wu, Y., Shu, Q., & Hao, Y. (2005). Commensuration for the evaluation index value. Acta ArmamentarII, 25(6), 746-751.
Copyright of all articles published in IJAHP is transferred to Creative Decisions Foundation (CDF). However, the author(s) reserve the following:
- All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
- The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain permission from CDF as well. However, CDF may grant rights with respect to journal issues as a whole.
- The right to use all or parts of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, textbooks, or reprint books.
- The authors affirm that the article has been neither copyrighted nor published, that it is not being submitted for publication elsewhere, and that if the work is officially sponsored, it has been released for open publication.
The only exception to the statements in the paragraph above is the following: If an article published in IJAHP contains copyrighted material, such as a teaching case, as an appendix, then the copyright (and all commercial rights) of such material remains with the original copyright holder.
CDF will receive permission for publication of copyrighted material in IJAHP. This permission is not transferable to third parties. Permission to make electronic and paper copies of part or all of the articles, including all computer files that are linked to the articles, for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage.
This permission does not apply to previously copyrighted material, such as teaching cases. In paper copies of the article, the copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date should be visible. To copy otherwise is permitted provided that a per-copy fee is paid.
To republish, to post on servers, or redistribute to lists requires that you post a link to the IJAHP article, which is available in open access delivery mode. Do not upload the article itself.
Authors are permitted to present a talk, based on a paper submitted to or accepted by IJAHP, at a conference where the paper would not be published in a copyrighted publication either before or after the conference and where the author did not assign copyright to the conference or related publisher.